To break up the stream of words produced by the lexer into English sentences, and join each to the parse tree.

§1. Sentence breaking. What breaks a sentence? In ordinary English, question marks, exclamation marks, in some cases ellipses, but mainly full stops. In Inform source text, only full stops are used outside quoted text; but we do have to recognise the other cases when they occur at the end of quoted matter. Moreover, we actually subdivide a little further, because we also want to break up rule "sentences" into their subordinate clauses. Thus, going on punctuation, we recognise rules as having the following model:

Preamble: phrase 1; phrase 2; ...; phrase N.

It is even, in certain limited circumstances, possible that a comma can divide a sentence:

Instead of eating, say "You really aren't hungry just now."

This means that context is important even here, where it might have been expected that all we needed to do was to spot the punctuation marks.

§2. Finite state machine. So we carry out the sentence breaking with a simple finite state machine — the last sentence having been a rule preamble tells us that the current one is probably a phrase, and so on — and the following is its state. It is inelegant that we have a singleton copy of this object and use a pointer to it as a global variable; but it saves an awful lot of parameter-passing in Preform grammar functions.

default PROBLEM_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE void
default PROJECT_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE void
enum NO_EXTENSION_POS from 0
enum BEFORE_BEGINS_EXTENSION_POS
enum MIDDLE_EXTENSION_POS
enum AFTER_ENDS_EXTENSION_POS
enum PAST_CARING_EXTENSION_POS

typedef struct syntax_fsm_state {
source_file *sf;  reading from this source file
int ext_pos;  one of the *_EXTENSION_POS values: where we are in an extension
int skipping_material_at_level;
int main_source_start_wn;
node_type_t nt;
int inside_rule_mode;
int inside_table_mode;
int inside_dialogue_mode;
PROBLEM_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *ref;
PROJECT_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *project_ref;
} syntax_fsm_state;

syntax_fsm_state the_one_and_only;
syntax_fsm_state *sfsm = &the_one_and_only;

• The structure syntax_fsm_state is private to this section.

§3. Note that a reset zeroes everything out except the main_source_start_wn; that's because we reset each time we begin a round of sentence-breaking, and there may be many such rounds on the same Inform project, but there's only one source text start position.

void Sentences::set_start_of_source(syntax_fsm_state *sfsm, int wn) {
sfsm->main_source_start_wn = wn;
}

void Sentences::reset(syntax_fsm_state *sfsm, int is_extension,
PROBLEM_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *ref, PROJECT_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *project_ref) {
sfsm->sf = NULL;
sfsm->inside_rule_mode = FALSE;
sfsm->inside_table_mode = FALSE;
sfsm->inside_dialogue_mode = FALSE;
sfsm->skipping_material_at_level = -1;
sfsm->ref = ref;
sfsm->project_ref = project_ref;
if (is_extension) sfsm->ext_pos = BEFORE_BEGINS_EXTENSION_POS;
else sfsm->ext_pos = NO_EXTENSION_POS;
}


§4. These are the syntax errors we will generate.

enum UnexpectedSemicolon_SYNERROR from 1
enum ParaEndsInColon_SYNERROR
enum SentenceEndsInColon_SYNERROR
enum SentenceEndsInSemicolon_SYNERROR
enum SemicolonAfterColon_SYNERROR
enum SemicolonAfterStop_SYNERROR
enum ExtSpuriouslyContinues_SYNERROR
enum ExtNoBeginsHere_SYNERROR
enum ExtNoEndsHere_SYNERROR
enum UnexpectedDialogue_SYNERROR
enum UnquotedDialogue_SYNERROR
enum EmptyDialogueClause_SYNERROR
enum MisbracketedDialogueClause_SYNERROR


§5. Now for the function itself. We break into bite-sized chunks, each of which is despatched to the Sentences::make_node function with a note of the punctuation which was used to end it.

void Sentences::break(parse_node_tree *T, wording W) {
Sentences::break_inner(T, W, FALSE, NULL, NULL);
}
void Sentences::break_into_project_copy(parse_node_tree *T, wording W,
PROBLEM_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *ref, void *project_ref) {
Sentences::break_inner(T, W, FALSE, ref, project_ref);
}
void Sentences::break_into_extension_copy(parse_node_tree *T, wording W,
PROBLEM_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *ref, PROJECT_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *project_ref) {
Sentences::break_inner(T, W, TRUE, ref, project_ref);
}

void Sentences::break_inner(parse_node_tree *T, wording W, int is_extension,
PROBLEM_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *ref, PROJECT_REF_SYNTAX_TYPE *project_ref) {
while (((Wordings::nonempty(W))) && (compare_word(Wordings::first_wn(W), PARBREAK_V)))
W = Wordings::trim_first_word(W);
if (Wordings::empty(W)) return;

int sentence_start = Wordings::first_wn(W);
SyntaxTree::enable_last_sentence_cache(T);

Sentences::reset(sfsm, is_extension, ref, project_ref);
Go into table sentence mode if necessary5.1;

LOOP_THROUGH_WORDING(position, W)
if (sentence_start < position) {
int no_stop_words, back_up_one_word;
int stop_character;

Look for a sentence break, finding the number of stop words and the stop character5.3;
if (no_stop_words > 0) {
Sentences::make_node(T, Wordings::new(sentence_start, position-1), stop_character);
position = position + no_stop_words - 1;
if (back_up_one_word) sentence_start = position;
else sentence_start = position + 1;

Go into table sentence mode if necessary5.1;
}
}

if ((sentence_start < Wordings::last_wn(W)) ||
((sentence_start == Wordings::last_wn(W)) && (!(Lexer::word(Wordings::last_wn(W)) == PARBREAK_V)))) {
Sentences::make_node(T, Wordings::from(W, sentence_start), '.');
}

SyntaxTree::disable_last_sentence_cache(T);

if (is_extension)
Issue a problem message if we are missing the begin and end here sentences5.4;
Sentences::reset(sfsm, FALSE, NULL, NULL);
}


§5.1. A table is any sentence beginning with the word "Table". (Bad news for anyone writing "Table Mountain is a room.", of course, but there are other ways to do that, and it seems wise to keep the syntax for tables clear, since their entries are governed by different lexical and semantic rules.)

Go into table sentence mode if necessary5.1 =

    if ((<structural-sentence>(Wordings::from(W, sentence_start))) &&
(NodeType::has_flag(sfsm->nt, TABBED_NFLAG)))
sfsm->inside_table_mode = TRUE;
else
sfsm->inside_table_mode = FALSE;

• This code is used in §5 (twice).

§5.2. We now come to the definition of a sentence break, which is more complicated than might have been expected.

For one thing, a run of sentence divisions is treated as a single division, only the last of which is the one which counts. This looks odd at first sight, because it means that Inform considers

The cat is on the table;.

to be a valid sentence, equivalent to

The cat is on the table.

But it has the advantage that it enables us to avoid being pointlessly strict over the punctuation which precedes a paragraph break. Some people like to write paragraphs like this:

    Before going north:
say "Northward ho!";
now the compass points north;


And properly speaking that ends with a semicolon then a paragraph break, which is a doubled sentence division. But we forgive it as harmless, and that forgiveness is provided by the loop arrangement below.

We also avoid the need for empty sentences, because it is not possible for the code below to detect them: thus

say "Look behind you!";;;;; now the Wug is in the Cave

is broken as two sentences, not six sentences of which four are empty. Perhaps we ought to be stricter, and reject more of these dubious forms, but at this point we have too little understanding of the semantics of the text to risk annoying the user with problem messages.

§5.3. Full stops, semicolons and paragraph breaks (all rendered by the lexer as individual words: the stroke word in the case of the latter) are always sentence divisions. The other cases are more complicated: see below.

Look for a sentence break, finding the number of stop words and the stop character5.3 =

    int at = position;
no_stop_words = 0; stop_character = '?'; back_up_one_word = FALSE;
while (at < Wordings::last_wn(W)) {
int stopped = FALSE;

if (Lexer::word(at) == PARBREAK_V) {
if (stop_character == ':') Issue problem for colon at end of paragraph5.3.1;
stop_character = '|'; stopped = TRUE;
}

if (sfsm->inside_dialogue_mode == FALSE) {
if (Lexer::word(at) == FULLSTOP_V) {
if (stop_character == ':') Issue problem for colon at end of sentence5.3.2;
if (stop_character == ';') Issue problem for semicolon at end of sentence5.3.3;
stop_character = '.'; stopped = TRUE;
}
if (Lexer::word(at) == SEMICOLON_V) {
if (stop_character == ':') Issue problem for semicolon after colon5.3.4;
if (stop_character == '.') Issue problem for semicolon after full stop5.3.5;
stop_character = ';'; stopped = TRUE;
}

Consider if a colon divides a sentence5.3.6;
Consider if punctuation within a preceding quoted text divides a sentence, making an X break5.3.7;
}

if (stopped == FALSE) break;
no_stop_words++; at++;
}
if (stop_character == 'X') {  X breaks are like full stops, but there is no stop word to skip over
stop_character = '.'; back_up_one_word = TRUE;
}
if (no_stop_words > 0)
LOGIF(LEXICAL_OUTPUT, "Stop character '%c', no_stop_words %d, sentence_break %d, position %d\n",
stop_character, no_stop_words, sentence_start, position);

• This code is used in §5.

§5.3.1. Issue problem for colon at end of paragraph5.3.1 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(ParaEndsInColon_SYNERROR, Wordings::new(sentence_start, at-1), sfsm->ref, 0);

• This code is used in §5.3.

§5.3.2. Issue problem for colon at end of sentence5.3.2 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(SentenceEndsInColon_SYNERROR, Wordings::new(sentence_start, at), sfsm->ref, 0);

• This code is used in §5.3.

§5.3.3. Issue problem for semicolon at end of sentence5.3.3 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(SentenceEndsInSemicolon_SYNERROR, Wordings::new(sentence_start, at), sfsm->ref, 0);

• This code is used in §5.3.

§5.3.4. Issue problem for semicolon after colon5.3.4 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(SemicolonAfterColon_SYNERROR, Wordings::new(sentence_start, at), sfsm->ref, 0);

• This code is used in §5.3.

§5.3.5. Issue problem for semicolon after full stop5.3.5 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(SemicolonAfterStop_SYNERROR, Wordings::new(sentence_start, at), sfsm->ref, 0);

• This code is used in §5.3.

§5.3.6. Colons are normally dividers, too, but an exception is made if they come between two apparently numerical constructions, because this suggests that the colon is being used not as punctuation but within a literal pattern. (For instance, "He went out at 1:34 PM." is a sentence with just one clause, not two clauses divided by the colon; but "He went out at 1 PM: the snow was still falling." is indeed divided. Our rule here correctly distinguishes these cases, and although it can be fooled by really contrived sentences — "He went out at 1: 22 Company, the Parachute Regiment, was marching." — it's robust enough in practice. The exception is forbidden if a line break occurs between the colon and the succeeding numeral, as then we might be looking at switch cases in an "if".)

Note that here we are at a word position which is strictly within the word range being sentence-broken, so that it is safe to examine both the word before and the word after the current position.

Consider if a colon divides a sentence5.3.6 =

    #ifdef DIVIDE_AT_COLON_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
if (DIVIDE_AT_COLON_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(at)) {
stop_character = ':'; stopped = TRUE;
}
#endif
#ifndef DIVIDE_AT_COLON_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
if ((Lexer::word(at) == COLON_V) &&
(Lexer::file_of_origin(at-1) == Lexer::file_of_origin(at)) &&
(no_stop_words == 0) &&
((Characters::isdigit(*(Lexer::word_raw_text(at-1))) == FALSE) ||
(Characters::isdigit(*(Lexer::word_raw_text(at+1))) == FALSE) ||
(Lexer::indentation_level(at+1) > 0))) {
stop_character = ':'; stopped = TRUE;
}
#endif

• This code is used in §5.3.

§5.3.7. Inform authors habitually use the punctuation in quoted text to end sentences, just as other writers of English do. The text

"Look out!" The explosion shattered the calm of the hillside.

is certainly intended as two sentences, not one.

An exception is made for table declarations, because a table needs to be formed as one long sentence, and it clearly does not abide by the ordinary punctuation rules of English. The point is that in the random line of table entries...

...the full stop after "kings" has no significance: the semantics of the table would be no different if it were not there.

Consider if punctuation within a preceding quoted text divides a sentence, making an X break5.3.7 =

    if ((stopped == FALSE) &&  only look if we are not already at a division
(no_stop_words == 0) &&  be sure not to elide two such texts in a row
(sfsm->inside_table_mode == FALSE) &&  check that we are not scanning the body of a table
(isupper(*(Lexer::word_raw_text(at)))) &&  and the current word begins with a capital letter
(Word::text_ending_sentence(at-1))) {  and the preceding one was quoted text ending in punctuation
stop_character = 'X'; stopped = TRUE;
}

• This code is used in §5.3.

§6. Making sentence nodes. At this point we have established that Sentences::make_node is called sequentially for every divided-off sentence in the original source text. But we need a little machinery to skip past sentences which are being excluded for one reason or another.

The design of Inform deliberately excludes conditional compilation in the traditional C sense of #ifdef and #endif. This takes us too far from what natural language would do, faced with the same basic issue. A book, or a government form, would more naturally have a heading making clear that the section beneath it is not universal in application. This is what Inform does, too: it parses a heading to decide whether to skip the material, and if so, the state sfsm->skipping_material_at_level is set to the level of the heading in question. We then skip all subsequent sentences until reaching the next heading of the same or higher status, or until reaching the "... ends here." sentence (if we are reading an extension), or until reaching the end of the text: whichever comes first.

void Sentences::make_node(parse_node_tree *T, wording W, int stop_character) {
int heading_level = 0, entering_dialogue = FALSE;
int begins_or_ends = 0;  1 for "begins here", -1 for "ends here"
parse_node *new;

if (Wordings::empty(W)) internal_error("empty sentence generated");

Vocabulary::identify_word_range(W);  a precaution to catch any late unidentified text

Detect a change of source file, and declare it as an implicit heading6.1;
Detect a dividing sentence6.3;

if ((begins_or_ends == -1) ||
sfsm->skipping_material_at_level = -1;

if (sfsm->skipping_material_at_level >= 0) return;

sfsm->inside_dialogue_mode = entering_dialogue;
Issue a problem message if the heading incorporates a line break6.4;
Issue a problem message if the heading does not end with a line break6.5;
Make a new HEADING node, possibly beginning to skip material6.6;
return;
}

Reject if we have run on past the end of an extension6.2;
Accept the new sentence as one or more nodes in the parse tree6.9;
}


§6.1. For reasons gone into in the section on Headings below, a change of source file (e.g., when one extension has been read in and another begins) is declared as if it were a super-heading in the text.

Detect a change of source file, and declare it as an implicit heading6.1 =

    if (Lexer::file_of_origin(Wordings::first_wn(W)) != sfsm->sf) {
#endif
sfsm->skipping_material_at_level = -1;
}
sfsm->sf = Lexer::file_of_origin(Wordings::first_wn(W));

• This code is used in §6.

§6.2. Reject if we have run on past the end of an extension6.2 =

    if ((sfsm->ext_pos == AFTER_ENDS_EXTENSION_POS) && (begins_or_ends == 0)) {
Sentences::syntax_problem(ExtSpuriouslyContinues_SYNERROR, W, sfsm->ref, 0);
sfsm->ext_pos = PAST_CARING_EXTENSION_POS;  to avoid multiply issuing this
}

• This code is used in §6.

§6.3. The client must define a Preform nonterminal called <dividing-sentence> which returns either a heading level number (1 to 10, with 1 the most important), or -1 to mean that the sentence begins an extension, or -2 that it ends one.

Detect a dividing sentence6.3 =

    if (<dividing-sentence>(W)) {
switch (<<r>>) {
case -1: if (sfsm->ext_pos != NO_EXTENSION_POS) begins_or_ends = 1; break;
case -2: if (sfsm->ext_pos != NO_EXTENSION_POS) begins_or_ends = -1; break;
default:
if (<<r>> == 6) {
entering_dialogue = TRUE;
} else {
entering_dialogue = FALSE;
}
break;
}
}

• This code is used in §6.

§6.4. We have already looked to see if the sentence could be a heading, and set the variable heading_level to be its ranking in the hierarchy (with 1, for "volume", the highest). But we also want to check that the heading does not have a line break in, because this is almost certainly a mistake by the designer, and likely to be a difficult one to understand: so we should help out if we can. Such a problem is best recovered from by continuing regardless.

Issue a problem message if the heading incorporates a line break6.4 =

    LOOP_THROUGH_WORDING(k, W)
if (k > Wordings::first_wn(W))
if ((Lexer::break_before(k) == '\n') || (Lexer::indentation_level(k) > 0)) {
break;
}

• This code is used in §6.

§6.5. And similarly... Here we take the liberty of looking a little ahead of the current word range in order to make the problem message more helpful: we check that we are still looking at valid words in the lexer, just to be on the safe side, but in fact we cannot run on past the end of the lexer feed which fed the malformed heading, because of all of the run-off newlines automatically added at the end of the feed of any source file.

Issue a problem message if the heading does not end with a line break6.5 =

    if (Lexer::break_before(Wordings::last_wn(W)+1) != '\n') {
int k;
for (k = Wordings::last_wn(W)+1;
(k<=Wordings::last_wn(W)+8) &&
(k<lexer_wordcount) && (Lexer::break_before(k) != '\n');
k++) ;
}

• This code is used in §6.

§6.6. We now have a genuine heading, and can declare it, calling a routine in Headings to determine whether we should include the material.

Make a new HEADING node, possibly beginning to skip material6.6 =

    new = Node::new(HEADING_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);
if (NEW_HEADING_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(T, new, sfsm->project_ref) == FALSE)
#endif

• This code is used in §6.

§5.4. When we finish scanning all the sentences in a given batch, and if they came from an extension, we need to make sure we saw both beginning and end:

Issue a problem message if we are missing the begin and end here sentences5.4 =

    switch (sfsm->ext_pos) {
case BEFORE_BEGINS_EXTENSION_POS:
Sentences::syntax_problem(ExtNoBeginsHere_SYNERROR, W, sfsm->ref, 0); break;
case MIDDLE_EXTENSION_POS:
Sentences::syntax_problem(ExtNoEndsHere_SYNERROR, W, sfsm->ref, 0); break;
}

• This code is used in §5.

§6.7. Unskipped material which is not a heading. Each of the sentences which are to be included is given its own node on the parse tree, which for the time being is a direct child of the root. Sentences are classified by their node types, the main identification attached to each unit in the tree.

• (a) "Nonstructural sentences", which will be subject to further parsing work, have node type SENTENCE_NT (and so will "regular sentences"). Anything we cannot place into categories (b) or (c) below will go here.
• (b) "Sentences making up rules". These are sequences of sentences in which a preamble (ending with a colon, or in certain cases a comma) of node type IMPERATIVE_NT is followed by a sequence of phrases (ending with semicolons until the last, which ends with a full stop or paragraph break), each of node type INVOCATION_LIST_NT. For instance, the following produces three nodes:

To look upwards: say "Look out!"; something else.

• (c) "Structural sentences". These demarcate the text, call for other text or unusual matter to be included, etc.: the types in question are TRACE_NT, HEADING_NT, INCLUDE_NT, INFORM6CODE_NT, BEGINHERE_NT, ENDHERE_NT, TABLE_NT, EQUATION_NT and BIBLIOGRAPHIC_NT.

§6.8. The second sentence in the source text is construed as containing bibliographic data if it begins with a quoted piece of text, perhaps with substitutions. For instance,

"A Dream of Fair to Middling Women" by Samuel Beckett

This sentence is at the position matched by <if-start-of-source-text>. (It may not be the first sentence read, because implied extension inclusion sentences and options-file sentences may have been read already.)

<if-start-of-source-text> internal 0 {
int w1 = Wordings::first_wn(W);
while (w1 >= 0) {
if (w1 == sfsm->main_source_start_wn) return TRUE;
if (compare_word(w1-1, PARBREAK_V) == FALSE) { ==> { fail nonterminal }; }
w1--;
}
==> { fail nonterminal };
}


§6.9. Accept the new sentence as one or more nodes in the parse tree6.9 =

    if (sfsm->inside_dialogue_mode) Make a DIALOGUE node6.9.9;
Convert comma-divided rule into two sentences, if this is allowed6.9.2;
Otherwise, make a SENTENCE node6.9.3;

Convert a rule preamble to a ROUTINE node and enter rule mode6.9.4;
if (sfsm->inside_rule_mode)
Convert to a COMMAND node and exit rule mode unless a semicolon implies more6.9.5
else if (stop_character == ';') {
Sentences::syntax_problem(UnexpectedSemicolon_SYNERROR, W, sfsm->ref, 0);
stop_character = '.';
}

at this point we are certainly in assertion mode, not rule mode
if (<structural-sentence>(W)) {
if (<<r>> == -1)
Detect a language definition sentence and sneakily act upon it6.9.7
else if (<<r>> == -2) {
Detect a Preform grammar inclusion and sneakily act upon it6.9.8
Node::set_type(new, sfsm->nt); return;
} else {
Node::set_type(new, sfsm->nt);
return;
}
}

Convert a begins here or ends here sentence to a BEGINHERE or ENDHERE node and return6.9.6;

none of that happened, so we have a SENTENCE node for certain
#ifdef NEW_NONSTRUCTURAL_SENTENCE_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
NEW_NONSTRUCTURAL_SENTENCE_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(new);
#endif

• This code is used in §6.

§6.9.1. We make an exception to the exception for the serial comma used in a list of alternatives: thus the comma in "Aeschylus, Sophocles, or Euripides" does not trigger this rule. We need this exception because such lists of alternatives often occur in rule preambles, where it's the third comma which divides rule from preamble:

Instead of pushing, dropping, or taking the talisman, say "It is cursed."

The following is used to detect "or" in such lists.

<list-or-division> ::=
...... , _or ...... |
...... _or ......


§6.9.2. Convert comma-divided rule into two sentences, if this is allowed6.9.2 =

    if ((sfsm->inside_rule_mode == FALSE)
&& ((stop_character == '.') || (stop_character == '|'))
&& (<comma-divisible-sentence>(W)))
Look for a comma and split the sentence at it, unless in serial list6.9.2.1;

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.2.1. In such sentences a comma is read as if it were a colon. (The text up to the comma will then be given a IMPERATIVE_NT node and the text beyond the comma will make a INVOCATION_LIST_NT node.)

Look for a comma and split the sentence at it, unless in serial list6.9.2.1 =

    int earliest_comma_position = Wordings::first_wn(W);
Set earliest comma to position after the or, if there is one6.9.2.1.1;
wording AW = EMPTY_WORDING, BW = EMPTY_WORDING;
if (<list-comma-division>(Wordings::from(W, earliest_comma_position))) {
AW = GET_RW(<list-comma-division>, 1);
BW = GET_RW(<list-comma-division>, 2);
}
if (Wordings::nonempty(AW)) {
Sentences::make_node(T, Wordings::up_to(W, Wordings::last_wn(AW)), ':');  rule preamble stopped with a colon
Sentences::make_node(T, BW, '.');  rule body with one sentence, stopped with a stop
return;
}


§6.9.2.1.1. Set earliest comma to position after the or, if there is one6.9.2.1.1 =

    if (<list-or-division>(W)) {
wording BW = GET_RW(<list-or-division>, 2);
earliest_comma_position = Wordings::first_wn(BW);
}


§6.9.3. At this point we know that the text W will make one and only one sentence node in the parse tree, so we may as well create and SyntaxTree::graft it now. There are a number of special cases with variant node types, but the commonest outcome is a SENTENCE node, so that's what we shall assume for now.

Otherwise, make a SENTENCE node6.9.3 =

    new = Node::new(SENTENCE_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.4. Rules are sequences of phrases with a preamble in front, which we detect by its terminating colon. For instance:

To look upwards: say "Look out!"; something else.

(which arrives at this routine as three separate "sentences") will produce nodes with type IMPERATIVE_NT, INVOCATION_LIST_NT and INVOCATION_LIST_NT respectively.

This paragraph of code might look as if it should only be used in assertion mode, not in rule mode, because how can a rule preamble legally occur in the middle of another rule? But in fact it can, in two ways. One is the officially sanctioned way to make a definition with a complex phrase:

Definition: a supporter is wobbly: if the player is on it, decide yes; decide no.

This produces four nodes: IMPERATIVE_NT, IMPERATIVE_NT, INVOCATION_LIST_NT and INVOCATION_LIST_NT respectively.

The other arises somewhat less officially when people treat phrases as if they were C (or Inform 6) statements, always to be terminated with semicolons, and also run two rules together with no skipped paragraph between:

    To do one thing: something here;
To do another thing: something else here;


A strict reading of our rules would oblige us to consider "To do another thing:" as a phrase within the definition of "To do one thing", and we would then have to issue a problem message. But this would be pettifogging. (People who habitually shuffle phrases about in their editors tend not to want to fuss about changing the punctuation of the last to a full stop instead of a semicolon. We may lament this, but it is so.)

Convert a rule preamble to a ROUTINE node and enter rule mode6.9.4 =

    #ifdef list_node_type
if (stop_character == ':') {
if ((sfsm->inside_rule_mode) && (ControlStructures::detect(W))) {
Node::set_type(new, list_entry_node_type);
#ifdef CORE_MODULE
Annotations::write_int(new, colon_block_command_ANNOT, TRUE);
#endif
sfsm->inside_rule_mode = TRUE;
return;
} else {
Node::set_type(new, list_node_type);
sfsm->inside_rule_mode = TRUE;
return;
}
}
#endif

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.5. Subsequent commands are divided by semicolons, and any failure of a semicolon to appear indicates an end of the rule.

Convert to a COMMAND node and exit rule mode unless a semicolon implies more6.9.5 =

    #ifdef list_node_type
Node::set_type(new, list_entry_node_type);
#endif
if (stop_character != ';') sfsm->inside_rule_mode = FALSE;
return;

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.6. Finally, we must tidy away the previously detected "begins here" and "ends here" sentences into nodes on the tree.

Convert a begins here or ends here sentence to a BEGINHERE or ENDHERE node and return6.9.6 =

    if (begins_or_ends == 1) {
Node::set_type(new, BEGINHERE_NT);
Node::set_text(new, Wordings::trim_last_word(Wordings::trim_last_word(W)));
#ifdef BEGIN_OR_END_HERE_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
BEGIN_OR_END_HERE_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(new, sfsm->ref);
#endif
return;
}
if (begins_or_ends == -1) {
Node::set_type(new, ENDHERE_NT);
Node::set_text(new, Wordings::trim_last_word(Wordings::trim_last_word(W)));
#ifdef BEGIN_OR_END_HERE_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
BEGIN_OR_END_HERE_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(new, sfsm->ref);
#endif
return;
}

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.7. Why are we taking a sneak look at this sentence now? Because it affects which headings we read the contents of. If we waited until sentence traverses, it would be too late.

Detect a language definition sentence and sneakily act upon it6.9.7 =

    current_sentence = new;
#ifdef LANGUAGE_ELEMENT_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
LANGUAGE_ELEMENT_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(GET_RW(<language-modifying-sentence>, 1));
#endif
Annotations::write_int(new, language_element_ANNOT, TRUE);

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.8. And for similar reasons:

Detect a Preform grammar inclusion and sneakily act upon it6.9.8 =

    current_sentence = new;
wording W = GET_RW(<language-modifying-sentence>, 1);
TEMPORARY_TEXT(wd)
WRITE_TO(wd, "%+W", Wordings::one_word(Wordings::first_wn(W)));

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.9. Dialogue sections have their own syntactic conventions, which are enforced here. This hand-tooled parser is annoyingly long to write out, but only in order to catch improbable unmatched-bracket errors with tidy error messages.

Make a DIALOGUE node6.9.9 =

    #ifdef DIALOGUE_WARNING_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
if (T->contains_dialogue == FALSE) {
DIALOGUE_WARNING_SYNTAX_CALLBACK();
}
#endif
T->contains_dialogue = TRUE;
vocabulary_entry *opening_word = Lexer::word(Wordings::first_wn(W));
if ((opening_word == OPENBRACKET_V) &&
(Lexer::word(Wordings::last_wn(W)) == CLOSEBRACKET_V))
This is a dialogue cue6.9.9.1;
if ((opening_word == DOUBLEDASH_V) ||
(opening_word == LEFTARROW_V) ||
(opening_word == RIGHTARROW_V))
This is a dialogue choice6.9.9.2;
Otherwise this has to be a dialogue line6.9.9.3;

• This code is used in §6.9.

§6.9.9.1. Here we are trying to match (Cue notes.).

This is a dialogue cue6.9.9.1 =

    wording CW = Wordings::new(Wordings::first_wn(W)+1, Wordings::last_wn(W)-1);
new = Node::new(DIALOGUE_CUE_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
Annotations::write_int(new, dialogue_level_ANNOT,
Lexer::indentation_level(Wordings::first_wn(W)));
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);
return;


§6.9.9.2. This is a dialogue choice6.9.9.2 =

    int clauses_from = Wordings::first_wn(W) + 1, clauses_to = clauses_from - 1;
int speech_from = clauses_from, speech_to = Wordings::last_wn(W);
if (Lexer::word(speech_from) == OPENBRACKET_V) {
for (int bl = 0, i=Wordings::first_wn(W); i<=Wordings::last_wn(W); i++) {
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) bl++;
if (Lexer::word(i) == CLOSEBRACKET_V) {
bl--;
if (bl == 0) { clauses_to = i; speech_from = i+1; break; }
}
}
}

wording CW = Wordings::new(clauses_from+1, clauses_to-1);
wording TW = Wordings::new(speech_from, speech_to);

new = Node::new(DIALOGUE_CHOICE_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
Annotations::write_int(new, dialogue_level_ANNOT,
Lexer::indentation_level(Wordings::first_wn(W)));
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);
if (Wordings::nonempty(TW)) {
parse_node *selection = Node::new(DIALOGUE_SELECTION_NT);
Node::set_text(selection, TW);
SyntaxTree::graft(T, selection, new);
}
if (Wordings::nonempty(CW))
return;


§6.9.9.3. Here we are trying to match Speaker (notes): "Speech.".

Otherwise this has to be a dialogue line6.9.9.3 =

    int colon_at = -1;
Find the colon position6.9.9.3.1;

int speaker_from = Wordings::first_wn(W), speaker_to = colon_at - 1;
int clauses_from = colon_at, clauses_to = colon_at - 1;
int speech_from = colon_at + 1, speech_to = Wordings::last_wn(W);

Trim away bracketed clauses after the speaker name6.9.9.3.2;

wording SW = Wordings::new(speaker_from, speaker_to);
wording CW = Wordings::new(clauses_from+1, clauses_to-1);
wording TW = Wordings::new(speech_from, speech_to);

if (<quoted-text>(TW) == FALSE) Dialogue speech not in double-quotes6.9.9.3.3;

new = Node::new(DIALOGUE_LINE_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
Annotations::write_int(new, dialogue_level_ANNOT,
Lexer::indentation_level(Wordings::first_wn(W)));
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);
parse_node *speaker = Node::new(DIALOGUE_SPEAKER_NT);
Node::set_text(speaker, SW);
parse_node *speech = Node::new(DIALOGUE_SPEECH_NT);
Node::set_text(speech, TW);
SyntaxTree::graft(T, speaker, new);
SyntaxTree::graft(T, speech, new);
if (Wordings::nonempty(CW))
return;


§6.9.9.3.1. The colon should always occur outside of parentheses, but if we can't find one in that happy condition, we just find the first one that's there (for the sake of issuing better problem messages: it won't lead to valid syntax).

Find the colon position6.9.9.3.1 =

    int bl = 0;
for (int i=Wordings::first_wn(W); i<=Wordings::last_wn(W); i++) {
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) bl++;
if (Lexer::word(i) == CLOSEBRACKET_V) bl--;
if ((bl == 0) && (Lexer::word(i) == COLON_V)) colon_at = i;
}
if (colon_at == -1)
for (int i=Wordings::first_wn(W); i<=Wordings::last_wn(W); i++) {
if (Lexer::word(i) == COLON_V) { colon_at = i; break; }
}
if (colon_at == -1) Not a dialogue line after all6.9.9.3.1.1;


§6.9.9.3.2. Similarly, we want to trim away bracketed clauses in a way which respects bracket nesting, and if we can't do that then the text is certainly erroneous: but we trim away the best we can for the sake of reporting a good problem.

Trim away bracketed clauses after the speaker name6.9.9.3.2 =

    while (Lexer::word(speaker_to) == CLOSEBRACKET_V) {
int bl = 0, cut = FALSE;
for (int i=speaker_to; i>=speaker_from; i--) {
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) {
bl--;
if (bl == 0) { clauses_from = i; speaker_to = i-1; cut = TRUE; }
}
if (Lexer::word(i) == CLOSEBRACKET_V) bl++;
}
if (cut == FALSE) {
for (int i=speaker_to; i>=speaker_from; i--)
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) {
clauses_from = i; speaker_to = i-1; cut = TRUE; break;
}
}
if (cut == FALSE) Not a dialogue line after all6.9.9.3.1.1;
}
int bl = 0;
for (int i=speaker_from; i<=speaker_to; i++) {
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) bl++;
if (Lexer::word(i) == CLOSEBRACKET_V) bl--;
if (bl < 0) break;
}
if (bl != 0) {
for (int i=speaker_from; i<=speaker_to; i++)
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) {
clauses_from = i; speaker_to = i-1; break;
}
}


§6.9.9.3.1.1. Not a dialogue line after all6.9.9.3.1.1 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(UnexpectedDialogue_SYNERROR, W, sfsm->ref, 0);
new = Node::new(UNKNOWN_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);
return;


§6.9.9.3.3. Dialogue speech not in double-quotes6.9.9.3.3 =

    Sentences::syntax_problem(UnquotedDialogue_SYNERROR, W, sfsm->ref, 0);
new = Node::new(UNKNOWN_NT);
Node::set_text(new, W);
SyntaxTree::graft_sentence(T, new);
return;


§7. This is shared by both cues and lines, each of which can have multiple clauses in brackets. Punctuation divides these only outside of brackets, so (hello, there), (and. here.) divides only at the central comma, and results in two DIALOGUE_CLAUSE_NT nodes: one for hello, there and the other for and. here.

void Sentences::add_dialogue_clauses(wording CW, parse_node_tree *T, parse_node *new) {
int start = Wordings::first_wn(CW), bl = 0;
for (int i=Wordings::first_wn(CW); i<=Wordings::last_wn(CW); i++) {
if (Lexer::word(i) == OPENBRACKET_V) bl++;
if (Lexer::word(i) == CLOSEBRACKET_V) bl--;
if ((bl == 0) &&
((Lexer::word(i) == FULLSTOP_V) || (Lexer::word(i) == SEMICOLON_V))) {
int a = start, b = i-1;
start = i+1;
}
if (bl < 0) break;
}
if (bl != 0)
Sentences::syntax_problem(MisbracketedDialogueClause_SYNERROR, CW, sfsm->ref, 0);
else if (start <= Wordings::last_wn(CW)) {
int a = start, b = Wordings::last_wn(CW);
}
}


    while ((a<b) &&
(Lexer::word(a) == OPENBRACKET_V) && (Lexer::word(b) == CLOSEBRACKET_V))
a++, b--;
if ((Lexer::word(b) == FULLSTOP_V) || (Lexer::word(b) == SEMICOLON_V)) b--;
if (b < a) {
Sentences::syntax_problem(EmptyDialogueClause_SYNERROR, CW, sfsm->ref, 0);
return;
} else {
wording W = Wordings::new(a, b);
parse_node *clause = Node::new(DIALOGUE_CLAUSE_NT);
Node::set_text(clause, W);
SyntaxTree::graft(T, clause, new);
}

• This code is used in §7 (twice).

§8. Some tools using this module will want to push simple error messages out to the command line; others will want to translate them into elaborate problem texts in HTML. So the client is allowed to define PROBLEM_SYNTAX_CALLBACK to some routine of her own, gazumping this one.

void Sentences::syntax_problem(int err_no, wording W, void *ref, int k) {
#ifdef PROBLEM_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
PROBLEM_SYNTAX_CALLBACK(err_no, W, ref, k);
#endif
#ifndef PROBLEM_SYNTAX_CALLBACK
TEMPORARY_TEXT(text)
WRITE_TO(text, "%+W", W);
switch (err_no) {
case UnexpectedSemicolon_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("unexpected semicolon in sentence: %S", text);
break;
case ParaEndsInColon_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("paragraph ends with a colon: %S", text);
break;
case SentenceEndsInColon_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("paragraph ends with a colon and full stop: %S", text);
break;
case SentenceEndsInSemicolon_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("paragraph ends with a semicolon and full stop: %S", text);
break;
case SemicolonAfterColon_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("paragraph ends with a colon and semicolon: %S", text);
break;
case SemicolonAfterStop_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("paragraph ends with a full stop and semicolon: %S", text);
break;
case ExtNoBeginsHere_SYNERROR:
Errors::nowhere("extension has no beginning");
break;
case ExtNoEndsHere_SYNERROR:
Errors::nowhere("extension has no end");
break;
case ExtSpuriouslyContinues_SYNERROR:
Errors::with_text("extension continues after end: %S", text);
break;