To manage references to Inter packages which may or may not yet exist.

§1. Package requests. See What This Module Does for a fuller explanation, but briefly, a package request represents a package which will eventually exist, if it does not exist already. inform7 and other code-generation tools can make elaborate shadowy hierarchies of such requests, with equally shadowy //inter_name//s within them representing symbols which also do not exist yet. Eventually, though, such tools need to make good on their promises and "incarnate" them.

typedef struct package_request {
    struct inter_tree *tree;
    struct inter_name *eventual_name;
    struct inter_symbol *eventual_type;
    struct package_request *parent_request;
    struct inter_bookmark write_position;
    struct linked_list *iname_generators;  of inter_name_generator
    struct inter_package *actual_package;  NULL until this is incarnated
} package_request;


package_request *Packaging::request(inter_tree *I, inter_name *name, inter_symbol *pt) {
    package_request *R = CREATE(package_request);
    R->tree = I;
    R->eventual_name = name;
    R->eventual_type = pt;
    R->parent_request = InterNames::location(name);
    R->write_position = InterBookmark::at_start_of_this_repository(I);
    R->iname_generators = NULL;
    R->actual_package = NULL;
    return R;

§3. In the debugging log, package requests are printed in a form looking a little like URLs, except that they run in the reverse order, innermost first and outermost last: to make this more visually clear, backslashes rather than forward slashes are used as dividers.

void Packaging::log(OUTPUT_STREAM, void *vR) {
    package_request *R = (package_request *) vR;
    if (R == NULL) LOG("<null-package>");
    else {
        int c = 0;
        while (R) {
            if (c++ > 0) LOG("\\");
            if (R->actual_package)
                LOG("%S", InterPackage::name(R->actual_package));
                LOG("'%n'", R->eventual_name);
            R = R->parent_request;

§4. The packaging state. At any given time, Inter code is being produced at a particular position (in some incarnated package) and in the context of a given enclosure — see LargeScale::package_type. This is summarised by the following state:

typedef struct packaging_state {
    struct inter_bookmark *saved_bookmark;
    struct package_request *saved_enclosure;
} packaging_state;

§5. It is not legal to make any use of the following state, which exists only to initialise variables to neutral contents (and thus to avoid warnings generated because our C compiler is not able to prove that they will never be used in an uninitialised state — though in fact they will not).

packaging_state Packaging::stateless(void) {
    packaging_state PS;
    PS.saved_bookmark = NULL;
    PS.saved_enclosure = NULL;
    return PS;

§6. States are intentionally very lightweight, and in particular they contain pointers to the bookmark structures rather than containing a copy thereof. But those pointers have to point somewhere, and this is where: to a stack of bookmarks.

The maximum here is beyond plenty: it's not the maximum hierarchical depth of the Inter output, it's the maximum number of times that Inform interrupts itself during compilation.

inter_bookmark *Packaging::push_state(inter_tree *I, inter_bookmark IBM) {
    if (I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_sp >= MAX_PACKAGING_ENTRY_DEPTH)
        internal_error("package stack overflow");
    I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_stack[I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_sp] = IBM;
    return &(I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_stack[I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_sp++]);

void Packaging::pop_state(inter_tree *I) {
    if (I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_sp <= 0)
        internal_error("package stack underflow");

§7. We store the current state at all times in the building site, and it has the following invariant:

In fact, saved_enclosure is NULL only fleetingly: as soon as the main package is created, very early on, the enclosure is always an enclosing package.

inter_bookmark *Packaging::at(inter_tree *I) {
    return I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_bookmark;

void Packaging::set_at(inter_tree *I, inter_bookmark to) {
    *(I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_bookmark) = to;

package_request *Packaging::enclosure(inter_tree *I) {
    return I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_enclosure;

void Packaging::initialise_state(inter_tree *I) {
    I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_bookmark =
        Packaging::push_state(I, InterBookmark::at_start_of_this_repository(I));
    I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_enclosure = NULL;

§8. When we set the state, saved_enclosure becomes the smallest package containing (or equal to) PR.

void Packaging::set_state(inter_tree *I, inter_bookmark *to, package_request *PR) {
    I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_bookmark = to;
    while ((PR) && (PR->parent_request) &&
        (LargeScale::package_type_enclosing(PR->eventual_type) == FALSE))
        PR = PR->parent_request;
    I->site.spdata.current_state.saved_enclosure = PR;

§9. Bubbles. Inter code is stored in memory as a linked list. This is fast and compact, but can make it awkward to insert material other than at the end, particularly if one insertion leads to another close by, midway in the process — which is exactly what can happen when incarnating a nested set of packages.

It is also tricky to bookmark positions if nearby code may later be rewritten or removed, as sometimes happens. A bookmark meaning "after this INV_IST instruction here" would be rendered invalid if that instruction were for some reason removed.

Finally, because bookmarks can only refer to existing instruction positions, it is difficult to place a bookmark in an empty package.

We avoid all these difficulties by placing "bubbles" at positions in the linked list where we will later need to return and place new material. A bubble is simply a pair of NOP_IST (no operation) instructions; any later inserted material will be placed between them. For example:

    inv Whatever
    nop                                       } this is the bubble
        <--- bookmark position is here        }
    nop                                       }

To insert a bubble at the current write-position:

inter_bookmark Packaging::bubble(inter_tree *I) {
    inter_bookmark b = InterBookmark::snapshot(Packaging::at(I));
    return b;

§10. To insert a bubble somewhere else:

inter_bookmark Packaging::bubble_at(inter_bookmark *IBM) {
    Produce::nop_at(IBM, 2);
    inter_bookmark b = InterBookmark::snapshot(IBM);
    Produce::nop_at(IBM, 2);
    return b;

§11. It's true that the Inter hierarchy does become fairly carbonated with these bubbles, which costs us some memory; but in practice they cause no real speed overhead, because nop instructions are so quickly skipped over.

§12. Entry and exit. Each PR contains a "write position". This is where emitted Inter code will go; and it means that not all of the code inside a package needs to be written at the same time. We can come and go as we please, adding code to packages all over the hierarchy, simply by switching to the write position in the package we wsnt to extend next.

That switching is called "entering" a package. Every entry must be followed by a matching exit, which restores the write position to where it was before the entry. (The one exception is that the very first entry, into main — see LargeScale::begin_new_tree — is never followed by an exit.)

packaging_state Packaging::enter_home_of(inter_name *N) {
    return Packaging::enter(InterNames::location(N));

packaging_state Packaging::enter(package_request *R) {
    if (R == NULL) internal_error("no such package request");
    LOGIF(PACKAGING, "Entering $X\n", R);
    packaging_state save = R->tree->site.spdata.current_state;
    Packaging::set_state(R->tree, &(R->write_position), Packaging::enclosure(R->tree));
    inter_bookmark *bubble = Packaging::push_state(R->tree, Packaging::bubble(R->tree));
    Packaging::set_state(R->tree, bubble, R);
    LOGIF(PACKAGING, "[%d] Current enclosure is $X\n",
        R->tree->site.spdata.packaging_entry_sp, Packaging::enclosure(R->tree));
    return save;

void Packaging::exit(inter_tree *I, packaging_state save) {
    Packaging::set_state(I, save.saved_bookmark, save.saved_enclosure);
    LOGIF(PACKAGING, "[%d] Back to $X\n",
        I->site.spdata.packaging_entry_sp, Packaging::enclosure(I));

§13. Incarnation. The subtlety here is that if a package is incarnated, its parent must be incarnated first, and we need to make sure that their write-position bubbles do not lie inside each other: if they did, material compiled to the parent and to the child would end up interleaved.

inter_package *Packaging::incarnate(package_request *R) {
    if (R == NULL) internal_error("can't incarnate null request");
    if (R->actual_package == NULL) {
        LOGIF(PACKAGING, "Request to make incarnate $X\n", R);
        inter_tree *I = R->tree;
        package_request *E = Packaging::enclosure(I);  This will not change
        if (R->parent_request) {
            inter_bookmark *save_IRS = Packaging::at(I);
            Packaging::set_state(I, &(R->parent_request->write_position), E);
            inter_bookmark package_bubble = Packaging::bubble(I);
            Packaging::set_state(I, &package_bubble, E);
            R->actual_package = Produce::make_and_set_package(I, R->eventual_name, R->eventual_type);
            R->write_position = Packaging::bubble(I);
            Packaging::set_state(I, save_IRS, E);
        } else {
            inter_bookmark package_bubble = Packaging::bubble(I);
            package_bubble = Packaging::bubble(I);
            inter_bookmark *save_IRS = Packaging::at(I);
            Packaging::set_state(I, &package_bubble, E);
            R->actual_package = Produce::make_and_set_package(I, R->eventual_name, R->eventual_type);
            R->write_position = Packaging::bubble(I);
            Packaging::set_state(I, save_IRS, E);
        LOGIF(PACKAGING, "Made incarnate $X bookmark $5\n", R, &(R->write_position));
    return R->actual_package;

§14. Functions. Inter code has a standard layout for functions: an outer, enclosing, package of type _function, inside which is an iname call for the actual code to call. All such functions are produced by the following:

inter_name *Packaging::function(inter_tree *I, inter_name *function_iname,
    text_stream *translation) {
    package_request *P =
        Packaging::request(I, function_iname, LargeScale::package_type(I, I"_function"));
    inter_name *iname = InterNames::explicitly_named(I"call", P);
    if (translation) InterNames::set_translation(iname, translation);
    return iname;

int Packaging::housed_in_function(inter_tree *I, inter_name *iname) {
    if (iname == NULL) return FALSE;
    package_request *P = InterNames::location(iname);
    if (P == NULL) return FALSE;
    if (P->eventual_type == LargeScale::package_type(I, I"_function")) return TRUE;
    return FALSE;

§15. Datum packages. These are very similar.

inter_name *Packaging::datum_text(inter_tree *I, inter_name *function_iname,
    text_stream *identifier) {
    package_request *P =
        Packaging::request(I, function_iname, LargeScale::package_type(I, I"_data"));
    inter_name *iname = InterNames::explicitly_named(identifier, P);
    return iname;

§16. Generating inames. The following allows a sequence of different inames to be generated inside a package: for example, Packaging::make_iname_within(R, I"acorn") produces a sequence of inames acorn1, acorn2, ..., as it's called over and over again.

The linked list here is invariably short, in practice, often with only 1 entry, and so this naive algorithm is probably faster than using a hashed dictionary of name stems.

inter_name *Packaging::make_iname_within(package_request *R, text_stream *what_for) {
    if (R == NULL) internal_error("no request");
    if (R->iname_generators == NULL)
        R->iname_generators = NEW_LINKED_LIST(inter_name_generator);

    inter_name_generator *gen;
    LOOP_OVER_LINKED_LIST(gen, inter_name_generator, R->iname_generators)
        if (Str::eq(what_for, gen->name_stem))
            return InterNames::generated_in(gen, -1, EMPTY_WORDING, R);

    gen = InterNames::multiple_use_generator(NULL, what_for, NULL);
    ADD_TO_LINKED_LIST(gen, inter_name_generator, R->iname_generators);
    return InterNames::generated_in(gen, -1, EMPTY_WORDING, R);

§17. Bookkeeping.

typedef struct site_packaging_data {
    struct packaging_state current_state;
    struct inter_bookmark packaging_entry_stack[MAX_PACKAGING_ENTRY_DEPTH];
    int packaging_entry_sp;
} site_packaging_data;

void Packaging::clear_site_data(inter_tree *I) {
    building_site *B = &(I->site);
    B->spdata.current_state = Packaging::stateless();
    B->spdata.packaging_entry_sp = 0;