Starting up and shutting down.

§1. Introduction. The Foundation module supplies some of the conveniences of more modern programming languages to ANSI C. It offers the usual stuff of standard libraries everywhere: memory management, collection classes, filename and file system accesss, regular-expression matching and so on. At one time the higher-level material formed a second module called "Foundation and Empire", but now it's all consolidated into a single everything-you-need module. Almost all functionality is optional and can be ignored if not wanted. With a few provisos, the code is thread-safe, sturdy and well tested, since it forms the support code for the Inform programming language's compiler and outlying tools, including Inweb itself. If you need to write a command-line utility in ANSI C with no dependencies on other tools or libraries to speak of, you could do worse.

To use foundation, the Contents section of a web should include:

    Import: foundation

before beginning the chapter rundown. There are then a few conventions which must be followed. The main routine for the client should, as one of its very first acts, call Foundation::start(), and should similarly, just before it exits, call Foundation::end(). Any other module used should be started after Foundation starts, and ended before Foundation ends.

In addition, the client's source code needs to define a few symbols to indicate what it needs in the way of memory allocation. For an example, see the code for Inweb itself.

§2. Basic definitions. These are all from the ANSI C standard library (or the pthread POSIX standard), which means that Inweb will tangle them up to the top of the C source code. Because pthread is not normally available on Windows, a special header is supplied instead for that case.

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <math.h>

typedef uint32_t inchar32_t;


text_stream *DL = NULL;  Current destination of debugging text: kept NULL until opened

§4. We'll use three truth states, the third of which can also mean "unknown".

define TRUE 1
define FALSE 0

§5. And we recognise two different encodings for narrow (i.e., char *) C strings.

define UTF8_ENC 1  Write as UTF-8 without BOM
define ISO_ENC 2  Write as ISO Latin-1 (i.e., no conversion needed)

§6. It is assumed that our host filing system can manage at least 30-character filenames, that space is legal as a character in a filename, and that trailing extensions can be longer than 3 characters (in particular, that .html is allowed). There are no clear rules but on Windows MAX_PATH can be as low as 260, and on Mac OS X the equivalent limit is 1024; both systems can house files buried more deeply, but in both cases the user interface to the operating system fails to recognise them. Some Linux implementations raise the equivalent PATH_MAX limit as high as 4096. This seems a reasonable compromise in practice:


§7. Very occasionally we'll store a pointer as data:

typedef uintptr_t pointer_sized_int;

§8. The beginning and the end. As noted above, the client needs to call these when starting up and when shutting down.

The Inweb notation [[textliterals]] inserts declarations of I-literals, that is, literal text_stream * values written as I"strings". It should never be used anywhere but here.

void Foundation::start(int argc, char **argv) {
    CommandLine::set_locale(argc, argv);
    Register the default stream writers8.1;
    Register the default debugging log aspects8.2;
    Register the default debugging log writers8.3;
    Register the default command line switches8.5;

§8.1. After calling Foundation::start(), the client can register further stream writing routines, following these models: they define the meaning of escape characters in WRITE, our version of formatted printing. %f, for example, prints a filename by calling Filenames::writer.

Register the default stream writers8.1 =

    Writers::register_writer('f', &Filenames::writer);
    Writers::register_writer('p', &Pathnames::writer);
    Writers::register_writer('v', &VersionNumbers::writer);
    Writers::register_writer('S', &Streams::writer);

§8.2. We provide a full logging service, in which different "aspects" can be switched on or off. Each aspect represents an activity of the program about which a narrative is printed, or not printed, to the debugging log file. The following are always provided, but are all off by default.

Register the default debugging log aspects8.2 =

    Log::declare_aspect(DEBUGGING_LOG_INCLUSIONS_DA, U"debugging log inclusions", FALSE, FALSE);
    Log::declare_aspect(SHELL_USAGE_DA, U"shell usage", FALSE, FALSE);
    Log::declare_aspect(MEMORY_USAGE_DA, U"memory usage", FALSE, FALSE);
    Log::declare_aspect(TEXT_FILES_DA, U"text files", FALSE, FALSE);

§8.3. Debugging log writers are similar to stream writers, but implement the $ escapes only available to the debugging log. For example, $S calls the Streams::log function to print a textual representation of the current state of a stream.

Register the default debugging log writers8.3 =

    Writers::register_logger('a', &Tries::log_avinue);
    Writers::register_logger('S', &Streams::log);

§8.4. We provide an optional service for parsing the command line. By default, the -log A switch makes that aspect active, though it's hyphenated, so for example -log memory-usage or -log no-memory-usage. -fixtime is used to ease automated testing: we don't want to reject the output from some tool just because it contains today's date and not the date when the test was set up. -crash tells the tool to crash on a fatal error, rather than to exit cleanly, to make it easier to diagnose in a debugger.

enum LOG_CLSW from 0
enum AT_CLSW

§8.5. Register the default command line switches8.5 =

    CommandLine::begin_group(FOUNDATION_CLSG, NULL);
    CommandLine::declare_switch(LOG_CLSW, U"log", 2,
        U"write the debugging log to include diagnostics on X");
    CommandLine::declare_switch(VERSION_CLSW, U"version", 1,
        U"print out version number");
    CommandLine::declare_boolean_switch(CRASH_CLSW, U"crash", 1,
        U"intentionally crash on internal errors, for backtracing", FALSE);
    CommandLine::declare_switch(HELP_CLSW, U"help", 1,
        U"print this help information");
    CommandLine::declare_boolean_switch(FIXTIME_CLSW, U"fixtime", 1,
        U"pretend the time is 11 a.m. on 28 March 2016 for testing", FALSE);
    CommandLine::declare_switch(AT_CLSW, U"at", 2,
        U"specify that this tool is installed at X");
    CommandLine::declare_switch(LOCALE_CLSW, U"locale", 2,
        U"set locales as 'L=E', L being shell or console, E platform, utf-8 or iso-latin1");

§9. Once the following has been called, it is not safe to use any of the foundation facilities. It should be called on any normal exit, but not on an early termination due to a fatal error, as this may lead to thread safety problems.

void Foundation::end(void) {
    if (Log::aspect_switched_on(MEMORY_USAGE_DA)) Memory::log_statistics();