The standard set of symbol annotations used within Inform.
- §1. Status
- §2. Translation
- §3. Append
- §4. Assimilation markers
- §5. Miscellaneous code-generation storage
§1. Status. The Inter specification allows for any number of annotations to be used; none are required. The ones listed below are those used in the Inform toolchain at present.
As a general guideline, annotations are best used for temporary storage during complex operations (optimisation, code generation, and so on), rather than for information which changes the functionality of a program. But this is only a guideline, and several of the cases below could be argued to break it.
What is certainly true is that we want to avoid annotations if there are better ways to achieve the same thing. At one time there were over 30 in use, but the figure is now below 10.
§2. Translation. The final code we generate is itself (probably) the source code of a program in some other language — C, for example. That means that most of the symbols in our Inter program will be "translated" into identifiers in that final program. For example, the Inter declaration:
constant BakersDozen = 13
might ultimately be compiled to:
#define CON_019900_BKRSDZN 13
An exaggerated example, perhaps, but the point is that it's normally none of our business what identifiers the final code-generator chooses to use.
However, we can override its choice like so:
constant BakersDozen = 13 __translation="BAKERS_DOZEN"
And now it would come out as:
#define BAKERS_DOZEN 13
The __translation annotation is sometimes added by the final code-generator itself, to keep track of its translation decisions, but can also be added by the Inform 7 front-end compiler. Ideally it wouldn't ever do so, but this is the only sensible way to implement the low-level language feature:
The tally is a number that varies. The tally translates into Inter as "SHAZAM".
And this is in turn is a feature we can't simply abolish, or not without inventing some similar bodge, because it's needed in order to reconcile the natural-language names for certain standard properties (e.g., "lighted") with their kit-source equivalents (e.g. lit).
§3. Append. Like the insert instruction (see Data Packages in Textual Inter), the __append annotation subverts Inter by writing some code in raw Inform 6 syntax. This can be added to any definition of an instance of an object type, or to the type itself.
For example, the I7 source text:
Include (- has door, -) when defining a door.
kind K4_door <= K1_thing __append=" has door, "
Whereas to some extent insert can work even if the target is not I6, the __append annotation ties the program to I6 only. At some point we may simply abolish the "Include... when defining..." feature from I7, and then we'll gladly remove __append. Consider it deprecated already.
§4. Assimilation markers. Every symbol (other than a function name) whose definition was assimilated from Inform 6-syntax code in the source of a kit is given the boolean annotation __assimilated.
In addition, if the definition is of a fake action or an object, the annotation __fake_action or __object will be applied. For example:
Constant Dozen = 12; Fake_action PluralFound; Object thedark "(darkness object)";
package Dozen_con _plain constant Dozen = 12 __assimilated package ##PluralFound_con _plain constant ##PluralFound = 0 __assimilated __fake_action package thedark_con _plain constant thedark = 0 __assimilated __object
See the Inter test case Assim.
These three markers are applied only during assimilation, and thus only by Inter. The main Inform 7 compiler never applies them.
It would be feasible to combine these three annotations into a single one, say __assimilated_from="DIRECTIVE", marking everything with the I6 directive it came from. But while that would be elegant it would cost storage and time. Boolean annotations are cheaper, and __assimilated occurs a lot.
§5. Miscellaneous code-generation storage. As noted above, the main use case intended for annotations is as a way for optimisation or code-generation pipeline steps to attach notes to the tree. These are of no significance once those steps are complete, and do not change the meaning of the program.
They can also come or go without notice; they are not really part of the Inter specification at all. But briefly, the current set used is:
__inner_property_name="NAME" is used by Vanilla Objects (in final) to mark which property name belongs to which two-word property array.
__object_kind_counter=NUMBER is used by Kinds (in pipeline) to number off the kinds of object found in the program.
__array_address=NUMBER is used by C Memory Model (in final) to mark the address in process memory of each array.
__global_offset=NUMBER is used by Inform 6 Global Variables (in final) to mark where in its array of global variables a given variable lives.